Chapter 6: Flat-Plate Collectors – Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, 4th Edition [Book]

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Open access peer-reviewed Edited Volume. This book provides a quick read for experts, researchers as well as novices in the field of solar collectors and panels research, technology, applications, theory and trends in research.

It covers the use of solar panels applications in detail, ranging from lighting to use in solar vehicles. By submitting the form boook agree to IntechOpen using your personal information in order to fulfil your collecgor recommendation. For further information on how we protect and process your solar collector book pdf free information, please refer to our privacy policy. Open access peer-reviewed chapters.

Solar collector book pdf free Alma Cota and Robert Foster. By Harijono Djojodihardjo. By Soteris Kalogirou and Arzu Sencan. By Reccab Manyala and Frederick Onyango. This is made possible by the EU reverse charge method.

Log in to your Author Panel pddf purchase a book at the discounted price. For any assistance during ordering process, contact us at orders intechopen. Edited by Reccab Manyala. Edited by Radu Rugescu. Solar collector book pdf free by Leonid A. Edited by Vasilis Fthenakis. Edited by Arturo Morales-Acevedo. Edited by Ahmed F. Academic Editor. Reccab Manyala University of Zambia. Published October 5th, /28207.txt Doi ISBN Copyright year Number of pages Your email address.

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In concentrating solar-thermal power CSP plants, collectors reflect and concentrate sunlight and redirect it to a receiver, where it is converted to heat and then used to generate electricity.

In tower or central receiver plants, mirrors, known as heliostats, track the sun on two axes, with each heliostat typically on its own base, foundation, and motor to direct sunlight onto the receiver at the top of a tower. In parabolic trough plants, mirrors line the inside of a trough-shaped array, which follows the sun in only one direction, and concentrates the light on a linear receiver pipe. Learn more about how CSP works. Collectors are the starting point for the conversion of sunlight into energy.

They must be designed to efficiently concentrate light while minimizing fabrication, installation, and operating costs. Collectors that can cost-effectively achieve high concentrations of sunlight are able to directly improve the efficiency of the receiver. Currently, collectors can comprise 25 percent or more of the total system capital costs for CSP plants.

The U. SETO funds research and development in this area to improve the performance and lower the cost of solar collectors and produce prototypes that demonstrate the viability of advanced technologies for future integration in CSP plants. In particular, SETO-funded projects are working to develop solutions that enable a solar collector field to fully operate without any human input, reducing operating costs and maximizing thermal energy collection efficiency.

To view specific solar collector projects, search the Solar Energy Research Database. What are Solar Collectors? Why are Solar Collectors Important?

SETO Research in Solar Collectors SETO funds research and development in this area to improve the performance and lower the cost of solar collectors and produce prototypes that demonstrate the viability of advanced technologies for future integration in CSP plants.

 

– (PDF) Solar thermal collectors and applications | Soteris Kalogirou –

 

Learn more about how CSP works. Collectors are the starting point for the conversion of sunlight into energy. They must be designed to efficiently concentrate light while minimizing fabrication, installation, and operating costs.

Collectors that can cost-effectively achieve high concentrations of sunlight are able to directly improve the efficiency of the receiver. Currently, collectors can comprise 25 percent or more of the total system capital costs for CSP plants. The highest tempera- from the left the side of water entry to the right.

Temperatures averaged over the seven points During the hours of high insolation, the tempera- for each channel are shown, in dependence of time, in ture differential between water entering and water ex- figure 4.

All channels by Shitzer et al. Water entering the collector Water exiting the collector Outside surface of the glass cover Ambient air Figure 3. Tempe ra tures measured for the collector during February 6, Local solar noon occu rred at PM.

Figure 4. Pless To indicate the typical outer surface temperature dis- adjacent tubes and the water temperature inside the tribution along a given channel, figure 5 shows the tubes, which they ascribed to poor thermal bonds be- temperature values for seven points each, in the tween plate and tube. Figure 6 shows an even temperature gra- The points were selected equidistant along the dient as one moves upward on the collector, with a channel, and numbered from the bottom up. For each maximal surface temperature of The even temperature distri- and point 7 is about 9 degrees.

The highest tempera- bution from left to right across the collector is also tures are found equally in channels 1, 6, and 10, at the noteworthy. In general, the Figure 7 summarizes, for February , the temper- warmer zones are found in the upper part of the chan- atures of the uppermost water layer inside the nels, as expected. Each channel shows a monotonous, thermotank, taken daily at AM and PM, as though not exactly linear temperature profile.

Each day at PM, 60 liters of water Shitzer et al. The tempera- PM , which evidences the good thermal contact be- ture profiles shown in figure 8 attest to a continuous tween metallic channel and the flowing water which is increase in tank water temperature throughout the achieved with the present simple design. In contrast, hours of insolation. The layering of temperatures in the with plate-and-tube-arrays, Shitzer et al.

Surface tempe ra tures by infrared photo graph. For Figure 5. Surface tempe ra ture distri bu tion over the seven the spots marked on the image, the tempe ra tures given by points of measu re ment along chan nels the system were as follows: SP SP Evening and morning water tempe ra tures in the ther mo tank, for February A.

Figure 8. Point 1 is 4 cm lowed by another hour of slightly lesser flow. In these off the inner bottom surface. Point 9 is the highest 2 hours, a water volume equivalent to about two-thirds point still in contact with the water. At these high flow rates, Reynolds numbers around can be Flow measu re ment calculated for the flow through the 0.

Obviously, in the body of the hours of May 10, , a day of changing weather con- collector with its ample cross section, linear flow is ditions.

The figure shows for this test a maximum flow vail. Thus, ported by Shitzer et al. This is not surprising, as these latter sys- Fischer et al. Also, we dis- in the collector, instead of the wide channels which regarded the possible incidence-angle dependence of the characterize the present prototype. It is doubtful zero-loss efficiency, as we were interested mainly in the whether even higher flow rates would be desirable, as thermal efficiency during the hours around noon, when they might significantly perturb the thermal gradient the direction of incident radiation is reasonably close to established in the thermotank Shitzer et al.

For simplicity, these latter values The simple equation given above was considered Tank temperature Flow rate Figure 9. Water tempe ra ture inside the ther mo tank and water flow for May 10, The results component of the radiation incident on an horizontal are summarized in table 2.

Here we disregard any possible These theoretical results were compared to values foreground albedo. Figure 10 shows, for the main sun- determined experimentally at different times during a shine period of this day, the value of the direct and the given day, November 4, To this end, the direct so- diffuse radiation incident on the collector plate, as well lar radiation was measured continually by as the sum of the two.

The direct where the mass flow of the water, , was determined by radiation was similarly recalculated to give the direct flowmeter during the time under consideration, and RIIT Vol. Pless I t is the global irradiance on the collector plate during Mexican standard tests.

The results are shown in table 3. The thermal As seen from this table, the quality of the hot water was efficiencies determined in this manner are plotted in good. After 1. Simple To test whether the contact of the hot water with the gal- inspection showed the presence of a thin whitish layer, vanized surface may have resulted in reduced water qual- a fraction of a millimeter thick, locally formed as small ity, a sample of the tank content was evaluated in an in- spheres.

Direct, diffuse and global radia tion on the collec ting plate measured for November 4, Figure Micros copic image of the deposit on the inside surface of the ther mo tank. This result indicates that formation experimentally. The calculated surface temperature of of deposits in the thermotank proceeds at a very slow the channeled sheet was The Mexico, in conjunction with the unimpeded water temperatures measured daily at AM averaged flow through the wide channels.

This is in contrast to The theoretically calculated water temperature collectors using narrow risers found distinctly lower was 4. The temperature calculated for the glass cover the passive flow system. Pless The high flow rates achieved in thermosyphonic op- makes for robustness in its performance, as thermal eration with our prototype are due not only to the fac- transfer between the heated metal surface of the chan- ile linear flow in the vertical channels, but even more nels and the water flowing within is straightforward.

The materials used in the con- sideration of a parallel-plate absorber a configuration struction of this collector are easily obtained and dura- approximated in our design , the separation between ble. An estimate of the cost of production of this the plates affects the overall efficiency in opposite hot-water system, already installed, is 3, Mexican ways: the smaller this separation, the better the collec- pesos, including the thermotank and all external tubing tion efficiency, but too small a separation between the connections.

The low cost is due to the simplicity of plates could lead to lower throughput rates and also, the design, which reduces the welding effort compared eventually, to clogging by scale formation. Here we to systems with tubular risers, the relatively low labor show that with the dimensions dictated by our choice cost in Mexico, and the low price of galvanized chan- of construction materials, i. A rea- high flow rates are achieved in thermosyphonic opera- sonable selling price would be 7, pesos for the entire tion, while simultaneously maintaining high thermal unit.

With this, the family bud- low-cost manufacturability. Nonetheless, the prevalent get outlay involved in the purchase of such a system local climatic conditions make for low thermal losses, would be amortized in under 2. Thus, payback which results in an acceptable thermal efficiency; this times are much shorter than for technically more so- in conjunction with the high irradiance levels, provides phisticated systems in colder climes, even when these for a high thermal output.

This, in turn, allowed reduc- latter ones enjoy major government subsidies ing the dimensions of the prototype, compared to other Pedersen, The financial benefit will accrue over single-family models, which redounds in a reduction in many years, as simple solar collectors remain service- the cost of materials and an easier installation on the able for 15 years or more, performing at acceptable lev- sometimes crowded rooftops of small residential units. Likely future price increases for gas will make this option even more Conclu sions attractive.

In terms of environmental benefit one can calculate that during this lifetime of 15 years, the use of We have presented a mathematical model to calculate a water heater of this type would redound in a reduc- the temperatures at the solar collector, and these are tion of carbon dioxide emissions of over 10 tons correlated to easily measured parameters.

The mathematical approach be used to advantage in other tropical and subtropical presented here allows evaluation of different types of regions of the world, where conditions of high insola- flat solar collectors. The collector presented here allows heating the same amount of water which is heated with the stan- A Upper surface area of the collector plate dard two-square-meter collectors in the market.

E b1 Emissive power of the channeled sheet The geometry of the collector offers a high contact E b2 Emissive power of the glass cover area between the fluid and the collecting surface ex- E b3 Emissive power of the ambient air posed to the sun. Mexico City. Rad Clark P. Thinking about the importance of this topic, we have created a collection of books on solar energy in PDF format , so you can learn more about this friendly way to get the energy we need. It provides ten thousand times more energy than is actually used worldwide, however, it is not so easy to obtain it, although it is not impossible either.

It reaches us through electromagnetic radiation and can therefore be used to obtain electrical and thermal energy. This requires the use of solar panels , which capture the radiation and convert it into energy for human consumption. Three ways of using solar energy are highlighted: Photovoltaics obtained through photovoltaic solar panels and used to generate electricity , solar thermal energy collected through solar collectors and transformed into thermal energy and passive solar energy which is not obtained through any device, but uses solar radiation to position buildings so that they are naturally lit and heated.

At Infobooks we cover all topics of interest to the reading and research community. If this is on your priority list, we invite you to take a look at our collection of more than 20 books on solar energy in PDF format , available here for free and immediate download. We hope you liked it and already have your next book! If you found this list useful, do not forget to share it on your social networks.

 
 

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If evacuated tubes are compared with flat-plate collectors on the basis of the area of roof occupied gross areaa different conclusion might be reached than if the absorber or aperture areas were compared. However, FR is affected only by the dx solar collector characteristics, the fluid type, and the fluid which has the boundary conditions: flow rate through the collector. Solar collector book pdf free liquid collectors are commonly used to heat water for swimming pools but can also be applied to large-scale water pre-heating. The advantages of the former tracking mode is that solar collector book pdf free oriented north— south, can begin to accept radiation very little collector adjustment is required during the day перейти на источник from the sun long before a fixed, south-facing flat- and the full aperture always faces the sun at noon time but plate can receive anything other than diffuse radiation from the collector performance during the early and late hours of the portion of the sky that it faces.

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