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Better known as CBD, it is one of more than chemical compounds called cannabinoids that are found in the cannabis plant, Cannabis sativa 1. This quality makes CBD an appealing option for those who are looking for relief from pain and other symptoms without the mind-altering effects of cannabis or other side effects related to some pharmaceutical drugs.

CBD oil is made by extracting CBD from the cannabis plant and then diluting it with a carrier oil like coconut oil or hemp seed oil. CBD can be found in a variety of products online and in stores, including dietary supplements, bath soaks, drinks, and food.

It continues to gain momentum in the health and wellness world, with some scientific studies finding that it may ease symptoms of conditions such as chronic pain and anxiety. But is it the right choice for you? This article covers 6 evidence-backed health benefits of CBD, as well as potential side effects and safety concerns related to CBD products. Hemp-derived CBD products with less than 0. Cannabis-derived CBD products are illegal on the federal level but are legal under some state laws.

Cannabis has been used to treat pain since as far back as B. More recently, scientists have discovered that certain components of cannabis, including CBD, are responsible for its pain-relieving effects.

The human body contains a specialized system called the endocannabinoid system, which is involved in regulating a variety of functions, including sleep, appetite, pain sensation, and immune system response 3. The body produces endocannabinoids, which are neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors in your nervous system. Studies have shown that CBD may help reduce chronic pain by affecting endocannabinoid receptor activity, reducing inflammation , and interacting with neurotransmitters 4.

Some research suggests that CBD may be effective for certain types of pain, including nerve pain and back pain, when used on its own. However, it seems to be most effective when combined with THC 5 , 6.

A study that included 47 people with MS examined the effects of taking Sativex for a month. The participants experienced improvements in pain, walking ability, and muscle spasms 7. In one review, researchers noted that Sativex may benefit those with MS-associated neuropathic pain and chronic severe neuropathic pain. The review also found that Sativex may help relieve anxiety and stress, which are major drivers of chronic pain 8. Additionally, some research suggests that CBD may relieve symptoms of rheumatic diseases such as fibromyalgia.

A study that included survey data from 2, people with fibromyalgia found that those who used CBD for pain relief generally reported slight to significant improvement in symptoms 9. And according to preclinical evidence from rodent studies, CBD may have beneficial effects on pain and inflammation related to arthritis , but human studies are lacking Although researchers are cautiously optimistic that CBD may be helpful in the treatment of some types of pain, especially when combined with THC, more high quality studies are needed to determine its effectiveness in pain management.

CBD, especially in combination with THC, may be effective for reducing certain types of pain associated with conditions such as MS and fibromyalgia. Still, more research is needed to investigate its potential use in pain management. Anxiety disorders and other mental health disorders can have devastating impacts on overall health and well-being. Mental health disorders are often treated with pharmaceutical drugs, which can cause a number of side effects, including drowsiness, agitation, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and headaches CBD oil has shown promise as a treatment for some mental health disorders, such as anxiety disorders, leading many people who live with these conditions to become interested in this natural approach.

In a Brazilian study, 57 men received either oral CBD or a placebo 90 minutes before they underwent a simulated public speaking test. The researchers found that a mg dose of CBD was the most effective at significantly reducing anxiety during the test CBD oil has been used to safely treat insomnia and anxiety in children with post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD , a type of anxiety disorder Several other studies have found that CBD may be effective for those with social anxiety and other anxiety-related disorders However, results from several studies suggest that it may help reduce depressive symptoms in those with cannabis use disorders In fact, a study evaluating the possible effectiveness of — mg of CBD per day for 12 weeks on anxiety and depression symptoms in people with bipolar disorder is expected to be completed in April CBD use has been shown to improve some symptoms related to anxiety disorders.

Researchers are currently investigating how CBD may be used in the treatment of other mental health disorders. CBD may help reduce some cancer-related symptoms and side effects related to cancer treatment, such as nausea, vomiting, and pain. An older study looked at the effects of CBD and THC in people with cancer-related pain who did not experience relief from pain medication. Those treated with an extract containing both compounds experienced a significant reduction in pain compared with those who received only THC extract A review of five studies found some evidence that Sativex may help reduce cancer-related pain in some people However, findings from studies investigating the effects of cannabis and cannabinoids like CBD on cancer-related nausea, pain, and decreased appetite have been mixed Even though CBD may be helpful for some people with cancer, more research is needed to determine whether CBD should be used more regularly in cancer symptom management.

These products may not be safe, appropriate, or effective for all people with cancer. Though CBD may improve certain cancer-related symptoms in some people, research findings are currently mixed and more studies are needed to assess its effectiveness and safety. In fact, one of the most studied uses for CBD is in treating neurological disorders such as epilepsy and MS.

Though research in this area is still relatively new, several studies have shown promising results. Sativex has been shown to be a safe and effective way to reduce muscle spasticity in people with MS.

In another study, researchers gave people with severe epilepsy 0. Their seizures reduced by a median of One more study found that CBD oil significantly reduced seizure activity in children with Dravet syndrome, a complex childhood epilepsy disorder, compared with a placebo However, some people in both of these studies experienced adverse reactions associated with CBD treatment, such as convulsions, fever, and fatigue.

CBD has also been researched for its potential effectiveness in treating several other neurological diseases. Epidiolex, a prescription cannabidiol product, was approved for use by the FDA in for the treatment of seizures associated with two severe forms of epilepsy, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. In , Epidiolex received FDA approval for the treatment of seizures caused by tuberous sclerosis complex, a rare genetic disease that causes benign tumors to grow in the brain and other areas of the body CBD may be effective for treating seizures related to several health conditions.

The prescription CBD product Epidiolex has received FDA approval to treat seizures related to rare, seizure-causing conditions such as Dravet syndrome.

Some research has linked CBD with several benefits for the heart and circulatory system, including the ability to lower high blood pressure. High blood pressure is linked to higher risks of a number of health conditions, including stroke, heart attack, and metabolic syndrome In a small study, 9 healthy men were treated with mg of CBD oil. The CBD treatment reduced resting blood pressure compared with a placebo In the same study, the men also took part in stress tests that normally increase blood pressure.

Interestingly, the single dose of CBD led the men to experience a smaller blood pressure increase than normal in response to these tests Another study that included 26 healthy men found that treatment with mg of CBD for 7 days led to significant reductions in blood pressure in the short term compared with a placebo group.

However, the effect was lost after 7 days The CBD group maintained lower blood pressure levels in response to stress compared with the placebo group after repeated doses over time. The researchers also found that the CBD group had reduced arterial stiffness and improved blood flow through their arteries after repeated CBD dosing compared to the placebo group Overall, these findings are encouraging, but we need more studies of the potential benefits of CBD treatment on heart health. Though more human studies are needed, CBD may benefit heart health in several ways, including by reducing blood pressure and improving artery function.

CBD has been studied for its role in treating a number of health issues other than those outlined above. Some studies suggest that CBD may help with substance abuse disorders, mental health disorders, and certain types of cancers. However, we need more research in humans to find out more about these potential effects. Though CBD is generally well-tolerated and is considered safe, it may cause adverse reactions in some people.

Side effects noted in studies include 33 , 34 :. Other side effects, including abnormal liver function test results, drowsiness, sedation, and pneumonia, have been reported in childhood epilepsy studies. But these effects could stem from CBD interacting with other medications, such as clobazam In fact, CBD interacts with several medications, including pain medications, antidepressants, seizure medications, and diabetes medications. Before you try CBD oil, discuss it with a healthcare professional to assess safety and avoid potentially harmful interactions 35 , CBD is added to foods, beverages , dietary supplements, and body care products, and these items are often marketed as a way to improve stress, pain, and sleep issues.

However, this does not mean you should include any of these items in your diet or wellness routine. Although some evidence suggests that CBD may be helpful for certain aspects of health, dosing varies widely in research studies.

For example, dietary supplements that contain CBD plus a blend of herbal ingredients may not be safe for everyone, as many herbs have the potential to interact with commonly prescribed medications. Before you use a CBD product, talk with a healthcare professional to discuss appropriate dosing and any other questions you may have. If you do decide to use a CBD product, choose one that has been third-party tested for quality and purity. NuLeaf Naturals and Bluebird Botanicals sell CBD products that undergo testing by accredited third-party laboratories and offer batch reports on their websites.

Although CBD is generally considered safe, it can cause adverse effects such as diarrhea and fatigue in some people. It may also interact with certain medications, causing side effects that may be harmful.

CBD oil has been studied for its potential role in easing the symptoms of many common health conditions, including anxiety and neurological disorders. Plus, it may benefit heart health and help relieve certain types of pain. Research investigating the effects of CBD on certain conditions is ongoing, and there is still much to be learned about the potential uses of CBD. They can help you decide whether adding a CBD product to your routine is appropriate and help you choose the best product.

Try this today: Be wary of CBD products that are marketed as cures or treatments for health conditions. Although CBD may benefit people with certain conditions, this depends on factors such as dosing, quality, and the presence of THC in the product. This article is based on scientific evidence, written by experts and fact checked by experts. Our team of licensed nutritionists and dietitians strive to be objective, unbiased, honest and to present both sides of the argument.

This article contains scientific references. The numbers in the parentheses 1, 2, 3 are clickable links to peer-reviewed scientific papers. Can marijuana be safely eaten? We explain whether eating weed is safe and discuss both positive and negative health effects.

 
 

 

Diabetes – Wikipedia.PDF Editor and Reader for Mac | Free Trial | PDF Expert

 
Yes, PDF Expert 7 is a free download on the App Store. The free version lets you read and annotate PDFs, create notes and comments, draw with. To be fair, PDF Expert 7’s “free” isn’t exactly the same as paying $10 for the previous app. You won’t be able to sign, password protect, or. FWIW, if you already paid for the full and pro features in PDF Expert 6, you keep all those features in PDF Expert 7, without the subscription.

 
 

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In the Pacific, American Samoa [] and the French colony of New Caledonia [] succeeded in preventing even a single death from influenza through effective quarantines. However, the outbreak was delayed into for American Samoa and for New Caledonia as the quarantine period ended.

Estimates for the death toll in China have varied widely, [] [94] a range which reflects the lack of centralized collection of health data at the time due to the Warlord period.

China may have experienced a relatively mild flu season in compared to other areas of the world. The first estimate of the Chinese death toll was made in by Patterson and Pyle, which estimated a toll of between 5 and 9 million. However, this study was criticized by later studies due to flawed methodology, and newer studies have published estimates of a far lower mortality rate in China.

Although medical records from China’s interior are lacking, extensive medical data were recorded in Chinese port cities, such as then British -controlled Hong Kong , Canton , Peking , Harbin and Shanghai. These data were collected by the Chinese Maritime Customs Service , which was largely staffed by non-Chinese foreigners, such as the British, French, and other European colonial officials in China.

However, it is noted that the influenza mortality rate in Hong Kong and Canton are under-recorded, because only the deaths that occurred in colony hospitals were counted. The pandemic mostly killed young adults. In , older adults may have had partial protection caused by exposure to the — flu pandemic , known as the “Russian flu”.

Barry, the most vulnerable of all — “those most likely, of the most likely”, to die — were pregnant women. There were also geographic patterns to the disease’s fatality.

Some parts of Asia had 30 times higher death rates than some parts of Europe, and generally, Africa and Asia had higher rates, while Europe and North America had lower ones. Another major pattern was the differences between social classes. In Oslo , death rates were inversely correlated with apartment size, as the poorer people living in smaller apartments died at a higher rate. More men than women were killed by the flu, as they were more likely to go out and be exposed, while women would tend to stay at home.

A study conducted by He et al. They examined the factors that underlie variability in temporal patterns and their correlation to patterns of mortality and morbidity. Their analysis suggests that temporal variations in transmission rate provide the best explanation, and the variation in transmission required to generate these three waves is within biologically plausible values.

These factors were school opening and closing, temperature changes throughout the outbreak, and human behavioral changes in response to the outbreak. Their modeling results showed that all three factors are important, but human behavioral responses showed the most significant effects. Academic Andrew Price-Smith has made the argument that the virus helped tip the balance of power in the latter days of the war towards the Allied cause.

He provides data that the viral waves hit the Central Powers before the Allied powers and that both morbidity and mortality in Germany and Austria were considerably higher than in Britain and France. Kenneth Kahn at Oxford University Computing Services writes that “Many researchers have suggested that the conditions of the war significantly aided the spread of the disease.

And others have argued that the course of the war and subsequent peace treaty was influenced by the pandemic. Many businesses in the entertainment and service industries suffered losses in revenue, while the healthcare industry reported profit gains.

This was due in part to the failure of medical doctors, who were predominantly men, to contain and prevent the illness. Nursing staff, who were mainly women, celebrated the success of their patient care and did not associate the spread of the disease with their work.

A study found that US cities that implemented early and extensive non-medical measures quarantine, etc. A study in the Journal of Political Economy found that “cohorts in utero during the pandemic displayed reduced educational attainment, increased rates of physical disability, lower income, lower socioeconomic status, and higher transfer payments received compared with other birth cohorts. Survivors faced an elevated mortality risk.

Some survivors did not fully recover from physiological conditions resulting from infection. Despite the high morbidity and mortality rates that resulted from the epidemic, the Spanish flu began to fade from public awareness over the decades until the arrival of news about bird flu and other pandemics in the s and s.

There are various theories of why the Spanish flu was “forgotten”. The rapid pace of the pandemic, which killed most of its victims in the United States within less than nine months, resulted in limited media coverage.

The general population was familiar with patterns of pandemic disease in the late 19th and early 20th centuries: typhoid, yellow fever , diphtheria , and cholera all occurred near the same time. These outbreaks probably lessened the significance of the influenza pandemic for the public. Additionally, the outbreak coincided with the deaths and media focus on the First World War. The majority of fatalities, from both the war and the epidemic, were among young adults.

The high number of war-related deaths of young adults may have overshadowed the deaths caused by flu. When people read the obituaries, they saw the war or postwar deaths and the deaths from the influenza side by side. Particularly in Europe, where the war’s toll was high, the flu may not have had a tremendous psychological impact or may have seemed an extension of the war’s tragedies. The disease would usually only affect a particular area for a month before leaving.

In addition, Mary McCarthy referred to it in her memoir Memories of a Catholic Girlhood , as she and her three brothers were orphaned by their parents’ deaths from the flu. The Spanish flu killed a much lower percentage of the world’s population than the Black Death , which lasted for many more years. In the ongoing COVID pandemic , as of 10 August , more than million cases have been identified and more than 6. The origin of the Spanish flu pandemic, and the relationship between the near-simultaneous outbreaks in humans and swine, have been controversial.

One hypothesis is that the virus strain originated at Fort Riley, Kansas, in viruses in poultry and swine which the fort bred for food; the soldiers were then sent from Fort Riley around the world, where they spread the disease.

Others have disagreed, [] and more recent research has suggested the strain may have originated in a nonhuman, mammalian species. The last common ancestor of human strains dates between February and April Because pigs are more readily infected with avian influenza viruses than are humans, they were suggested as the original recipients of the virus, passing the virus to humans sometime between and The effort resulted in the announcement on 5 October that the group had successfully determined the virus’s genetic sequence , using historic tissue samples recovered by pathologist Johan Hultin from an Inuit female flu victim buried in the Alaskan permafrost and samples preserved from American soldiers [] Roscoe Vaughan and James Downs.

On 18 January , Kobasa et al. This may explain why the Spanish flu had its surprising effect on younger, healthier people, as a person with a stronger immune system would potentially have a stronger overreaction.

On 16 September , the body of British politician and diplomat Sir Mark Sykes was exhumed to study the RNA of the flu virus in efforts to understand the genetic structure of modern H5N1 bird flu.

Sykes had been buried in in a lead coffin which scientists hoped had helped preserve the virus. In December , research by Yoshihiro Kawaoka of the University of Wisconsin linked the presence of three specific genes termed PA, PB1, and PB2 and a nucleoprotein derived from Spanish flu samples to the ability of the flu virus to invade the lungs and cause pneumonia.

The combination triggered similar symptoms in animal testing. In June , a team at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine reported the flu pandemic vaccine provided some cross-protection against the Spanish flu pandemic strain. One of the few things known for certain about influenza in and for some years after was that it was, except in the laboratory, exclusively a disease of human beings.

In , Michael Worobey, an evolutionary biology professor at the University of Arizona who is examining the history of the pandemic, revealed that he obtained tissue slides created by William Rolland , a physician who reported on a respiratory illness likely to be the virus while a pathologist in the British military during World War One.

Worobey extracted tissue from the slides to potentially reveal more about the origin of the pathogen. In an investigation [] used the virus sequence [] to obtain the Hemagglutinin HA antigen and observe the adaptive immunity in 32 survivors of the flu pandemic, all of them presented seroreactivity and 7 of 8 further tested presented memory B cells able to produce antibodies that binded to the HA antigen highlighting the ability of the immunological memory many decades after.

The high mortality rate of the influenza pandemic is one aspect that sets the pandemic apart from other disease outbreaks. Another factor is the higher mortality rate of men compared with women. Men with an underlying condition were at significantly more risk.

Tuberculosis was one of the deadliest diseases in the s, and killed more men than women. But with the spread of influenza disease, the cases of tuberculosis cases in men decreased. Many scholars have noted that tuberculosis increased the mortality rate of influenza in males, decreasing their life expectancy.

During the s tuberculosis was more common in males than females, but studies show that when influenza spread the tuberculosis mortality rate among females changed. The death rate of tuberculosis in females increased significantly and would continue to decline until post-pandemic.

Death rates were particularly high in those aged 20— The only comparable disease to this was the black death , bubonic plague in the s. As other studies have shown, tuberculosis and influenza had comorbidities and one affected the other.

The ages of males dying of the flu show that tuberculosis was a factor, and as males primarily had this disease at the time of the pandemic, they had a higher mortality rate. Life expectancy dropped in males during the pandemic but then increased two years after the pandemic []. One major cause of the spread of influenza was social behavior.

Men had more social variation and were mobile more than women due to their work. Even though there was a higher mortality rate in males, each region showed different results, due to such factors as nutritional deficiency.

In Newfoundland , the pandemic spread was highly variable. Influenza did not discriminate who was infected, indeed it attacked the socioeconomic status of people. Although social variability allowed the disease to move quickly geographically, it tended to spread faster and affect men more than women due to labor and social contact.

Newfoundland’s leading cause of death before the pandemic was tuberculosis and this is known to be a severe underlying condition for people and increases the mortality rate when infected by the influenza disease. There was diverse labor in Newfoundland, men and women had various occupations that involved day-to-day interaction.

But, fishing had a major role in the economy and so males were more mobile than females and had more contact with other parts of the world. The spread of the pandemic is known to have begun in the spring of , but Newfoundland didn’t see the deadly wave until June or July, which aligns with the high demand for employment in the fishery.

The majority of men were working along the coast during the summer and it was typical for entire families to move to Newfoundland and work. Studies show a much higher mortality rate in males compared with females. But, during the first, second, and third waves of the pandemic, the mortality shifted. During the first wave, men had a higher mortality rate, but the mortality rate of females increased and was higher during the second and third waves.

The female population was larger in certain regions of Newfoundland and therefore had a bigger impact on the death rate. Records indicate the most deaths during the first wave of the pandemic were among young men in their 20s, which reflects the age of enlistment in the war.

The mobility of young men during was linked to the spread of influenza and the biggest wave of the epidemic. In late and throughout , thousands of male troops gathered at the Halifax port before heading to Europe. Any soldier that was ill and could not depart was added to the population of Halifax , which increased the case rate of influenza among men during the war. To determine the cause of the death during the pandemic, war scientists used the Commonwealth War Graves Commission CWGC , which reported under 2 million men and women died during the wars, with a record of those who died from to The movement of soldiers during this time and the transportation from United States between Canada likely had a significant effect on the spread of the pandemic.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the book, see The Great Influenza. This article is about the influenza pandemic that began in For the virus that caused the pandemic, see Influenza A virus subtype H1N1. See also. Flu season Influenza evolution Influenza research Influenza-like illness Vaccine reformulations.

I had a little bird, its name was Enza. I opened the window, and in-flu-enza. Coromandel Hospital Board New Zealand advice to influenza sufferers In September , the Red Cross recommended two-layer gauze masks to halt the spread of “plague”. See also: List of Spanish flu cases.

Main article: Spanish flu research. Medicine portal Viruses portal. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses. National Institutes of Health. PMC PMID World Health Organization.

Archived PDF from the original on 21 January Retrieved 21 August American Journal of Epidemiology. Oxford University Press. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 7 April Retrieved 11 April Science Friday. Retrieved 30 July But the name for the infamous outbreak, the Spanish flu, is actually a misnomer. September Journal of the American Medical Association.

Archived from the original on 25 January Retrieved 16 August The Journal of Infectious Diseases. JSTOR Archived from the original on 24 July Retrieved 24 May The importance of bacterial secondary infections”. April Archived PDF from the original on 3 December Medical Microbiology and Immunology. S2CID Archived from the original on 15 May Retrieved 26 July Archived from the original on 27 July Retrieved 5 April Retrieved 11 August Manhu, a Hebrew word meaning ‘what is it?

It was therefore urged that the epidemic be called ‘Man hu,’ an obvious corruption of “manna” meaning ‘what is it? XXXV, 9 July , p. The Lancet. ISSN Vojnosanitetski Pregled. This name is actually the most correct. Some things remembered about the influenza epidemic of at one army camp”. Journal of Occupational Medicine. Industrial Medical Association. Purple death : the mysterious Spanish flu of ISBN OCLC Two papers were published in The Lancet in describing an outbreak of disease constituting ‘almost a small epidemic’.

The first paper was written by physicians at a hospital center in northern France,3 and the second by a team at an army hospital in Aldershot, in southern England. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. Labelled ‘purulent bronchitis’ for want of a better term, the disease proved fatal in half the cases and many soldiers also developed cyanosis. Arkansas Democrat-Gazette.

Retrieved 7 August I came across this seemingly astute analysis in the Dec. Every country tries to make it out a native of another land Eighteenth-century Italian writers say Dr. Hopkirk spoke of “una influenza di freddo” influence of cold , and English physicians, mistaking the word influenza for the name of the disease itself, used it. The same term is also used in Germany, where a host of dialect names still prevail, such as lightning catarrh and fog plague. Los Angeles Herald. French doctors gave it the name of “la grippe,” which is now anglicized into “the grip” It is known all over the world, and there is a disposition in every nation to shift the odium of it upon some other country.

Then the Russians call it the Chinese catarrh, the Germans often call it the Russian pest, the Italians name it the German disease, and the French call it sometimes the Italian fever and sometimes the Spanish catarrh.

The Fashionable Illness. An Epidemic in Madrid’ and ‘Benign Epidemic. The Sickbay in Madrid,’ respectively. La Voz de Galicia in Spanish. Retrieved 29 July Las primeras noticias aparecieron en la prensa de Madrid el 21 de mayo de Try day worldwide plague”. York Daily Record. Retrieved 21 October Por ej. The first reports about the flu, drawing attention to the fact that something different was happening, appeared in the press at the end of May.

For example, in the newspaper ABC on 22 May, through a brief note on page “The doctors have verified, in Madrid, the existence of an epidemic of a influenza nature, very widespread, but, fortunately, of a mild nature. In the popular mind calamities often need to have their origin and cause identified and other countries or peoples credited with blame.

This xenophobic response has been common in Europe, that impulse to blame others or the silent places of the Asian heartlands for the source of disease. American Journal of Public Health. Retrieved 31 July A System of Medicine.

One is, that every epidemic owns one unknown source, whence it spreads; each nation, in turn, attributing to its neighbour from whom it derived the disease, the unenviable honour of originating it.

January Gaillard’s Medical Journal. The outbreak immediately preceding the present one was in , and has been well described by Da Costa. Like every other disease about whose pathology we know very little, this malady has not a scientifically correct name, but at different times and in different countries has received names which are almost purely local; thus the Russians have called it the Chinese catarrh, because it has often invaded Russia from China.

The Germans call it the Russian pest, while the Italians in turn call it the German disease. New York. The Russians called it the Chinese flu. In Japan, it was wrestler’s fever. In South Africa, it was known as either the white man’s sickness or kaffersiekte blacks’ disease. The Times. The unknown disease which appeared in Madrid a fortnight ago spread with remarkable rapidity It is reported that there are well over , victims in Madrid alone Although the disease is clearly of a gripal character Retrieved 12 August From the Times of London to the Washington Post, page after page was filled with dozens of advertisements for preventive measures and over-the-counter remedies.

NIMR History. Archived from the original on 29 April Retrieved 9 August — via web. Clinical Infectious Diseases. Channel 4 News. Archived from the original on 27 January American College of Physicians. Archived from the original on 25 November Retrieved 2 October The Economist. Retrieved 3 August He declared, not without embarrassment, that the disease which was ravaging his country was to be found nowhere else in Europe. In fact, that was not true.

The illness in question, influenza, had been sowing misery in France and Britain for weeks, and in America for longer, but Salazar did not know this because the governments of those countries, a group then at war with Germany and its allies, had made strenuous efforts to suppress such potentially morale-damaging news. Revista Espanola de Quimioterapia. French journalists had, initially, called it the ‘American flu’; but the fact that the American soldiers were his allies in the warlike conflict advised not to assign such a link to them Bonn : Friedrich Ebert Foundation.

Es ist der Versuch, einem Geschehen auf die Spur zu kommen. The naming of diseases and especially epidemics according to their presumed place of origin is nothing unusual.

It is an attempt to track down what is happening. At the same time, in this way, diseases are marked as something external, as something foreign that has invaded or been introduced. International Committee of the Red Cross. These discriminatory epithets reflect the many rumors and theories that quickly spread about the origins of the pathology. History Campus. Archived from the original on 16 August Retrieved 1 August The use of ‘Spanish’ can often have negative connotations, with the adjective often unfairly used to describe unwelcome events and problems.

The most obvious example is the so-called ‘Spanish flu,’ a reference to the influenza pandemic CBC Radio. Under the Influence. Medical professionals and officials in Spain protested. They said the Spanish people were being falsely stigmatized If you’ve ever wondered about the staying power of a brand, the ‘Spanish Flu’ is a case in point. A full years later, the ‘Spanish Flu’ is still referenced — and still remains a source of irritation in Spain. The Lighthouse.

Macquarie University. Retrieved 8 August The disease was called the ‘Singapore fever’ in Penang and the Bolshevik disease in Poland.

Government Printer, South Africa. People called it the “sumo flu” or “wrestler flu,” but in fact, this mysterious infection is believed to be the Spanish flu, which began spreading in the United States early that year. Japan Today. The first patients in Japan, reported Shukan Gendai May 2—9 , began showing symptoms around April Initially the disease was referred to as the “Sumo Kaze” sumo cold because a contingent of sumo wrestlers contracted it while on a tour of Taiwan.

Three well known grapplers, Masagoishi, Choshunada and Wakagiyama, died before they could return from Taiwan. As the contagion spread, the summer sumo tournament, which would have been held on the grounds of Yasukuni shrine, was cancelled. Retrieved 4 August Archived from the original on 20 March Retrieved 20 March Encyclopaedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 24 December What’s in a name. Spanish Influenza in sub-Saharan Africa and what local names say about the perception of this pandemic.

Cape Town, South Africa. Retrieved 13 August Report on the Pandemic of Influenza, — Stationery Office. There was a high west wind at the time and this was thought to be the carrying agent so that the affliction was called ‘the disease of the wind. JHU Press. In Tehran, the disease was called the “illness of the wind” nakhushi-yi bad due to its initial occurrence during a strong westerly wind burst and its rapid spread.

Chicago : American Medical Association. As this included the period of the great influenza epidemic when Type IV infections were usually prevalent, it will be seen that the proportion of fixed types among carriers and among cases is not far from the same.

War Department Annual Reports. Government Printing Office. On September 13, , the first cases of the great influenza epidemic were admitted, and during the next 10 weeks over 4, patients were admitted. Global News Canada. Retrieved 9 August This type can be further classified as immune-mediated or idiopathic. The majority of type 1 diabetes is of an immune-mediated nature, in which a T cell -mediated autoimmune attack leads to the loss of beta cells and thus insulin.

Most affected people are otherwise healthy and of a healthy weight when onset occurs. Sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are usually normal, especially in the early stages. Although it has been called “juvenile diabetes” due to the frequent onset in children, the majority of individuals living with type 1 diabetes are now adults. This term, however, has no biologic basis and should not be used.

Other complications include an impaired counterregulatory response to low blood sugar, infection, gastroparesis which leads to erratic absorption of dietary carbohydrates , and endocrinopathies e.

Type 1 diabetes is partly inherited , with multiple genes, including certain HLA genotypes , known to influence the risk of diabetes. In genetically susceptible people, the onset of diabetes can be triggered by one or more environmental factors , [61] such as a viral infection or diet.

Several viruses have been implicated, but to date there is no stringent evidence to support this hypothesis in humans. Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, and a significant proportion is diagnosed during adulthood. Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults LADA is the diagnostic term applied when type 1 diabetes develops in adults; it has a slower onset than the same condition in children.

Given this difference, some use the unofficial term “type 1. Adults with LADA are frequently initially misdiagnosed as having type 2 diabetes, based on age rather than a cause. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance , which may be combined with relatively reduced insulin secretion.

However, the specific defects are not known. Diabetes mellitus cases due to a known defect are classified separately. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes is primarily due to lifestyle factors and genetics. Dietary factors such as sugar -sweetened drinks are associated with an increased risk.

Antipsychotic medication side effects specifically metabolic abnormalities, dyslipidemia and weight gain and unhealthy lifestyles including poor diet and decreased physical activity , are potential risk factors. Gestational diabetes resembles type 2 diabetes in several respects, involving a combination of relatively inadequate insulin secretion and responsiveness.

Management may include dietary changes, blood glucose monitoring, and in some cases, insulin may be required. Though it may be transient, untreated gestational diabetes can damage the health of the fetus or mother. Risks to the baby include macrosomia high birth weight , congenital heart and central nervous system abnormalities, and skeletal muscle malformations. Increased levels of insulin in a fetus’s blood may inhibit fetal surfactant production and cause infant respiratory distress syndrome.

A high blood bilirubin level may result from red blood cell destruction. In severe cases, perinatal death may occur, most commonly as a result of poor placental perfusion due to vascular impairment. Labor induction may be indicated with decreased placental function. A caesarean section may be performed if there is marked fetal distress [78] or an increased risk of injury associated with macrosomia, such as shoulder dystocia.

Maturity onset diabetes of the young MODY is a rare autosomal dominant inherited form of diabetes, due to one of several single-gene mutations causing defects in insulin production. The name of this disease refers to early hypotheses as to its nature. Being due to a defective gene, this disease varies in age at presentation and in severity according to the specific gene defect; thus, there are at least 13 subtypes of MODY. People with MODY often can control it without using insulin.

Some cases of diabetes are caused by the body’s tissue receptors not responding to insulin even when insulin levels are normal, which is what separates it from type 2 diabetes ; this form is very uncommon. Genetic mutations autosomal or mitochondrial can lead to defects in beta cell function. Abnormal insulin action may also have been genetically determined in some cases.

Any disease that causes extensive damage to the pancreas may lead to diabetes for example, chronic pancreatitis and cystic fibrosis. Diseases associated with excessive secretion of insulin-antagonistic hormones can cause diabetes which is typically resolved once the hormone excess is removed.

Many drugs impair insulin secretion and some toxins damage pancreatic beta cells, whereas others increase insulin resistance especially glucocorticoids which can provoke ” steroid diabetes “. This is when a type 1 diabetic becomes insulin resistant, the hallmark for type 2 diabetes or has a family history for type 2 diabetes.

The following is a list of disorders that may increase the risk of diabetes: [84]. Insulin is the principal hormone that regulates the uptake of glucose from the blood into most cells of the body, especially liver, adipose tissue and muscle, except smooth muscle, in which insulin acts via the IGF The body obtains glucose from three main sources: the intestinal absorption of food; the breakdown of glycogen glycogenolysis , the storage form of glucose found in the liver; and gluconeogenesis , the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate substrates in the body.

Insulin can inhibit the breakdown of glycogen or the process of gluconeogenesis, it can stimulate the transport of glucose into fat and muscle cells, and it can stimulate the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen. Insulin is used by about two-thirds of the body’s cells to absorb glucose from the blood for use as fuel, for conversion to other needed molecules, or for storage. Lower glucose levels result in decreased insulin release from the beta cells and in the breakdown of glycogen to glucose.

This process is mainly controlled by the hormone glucagon , which acts in the opposite manner to insulin. If the amount of insulin available is insufficient, or if cells respond poorly to the effects of insulin insulin resistance , or if the insulin itself is defective, then glucose is not absorbed properly by the body cells that require it, and is not stored appropriately in the liver and muscles.

The net effect is persistently high levels of blood glucose, poor protein synthesis , and other metabolic derangements, such as metabolic acidosis in cases of complete insulin deficiency. When glucose concentration in the blood remains high over time, the kidneys reach a threshold of reabsorption , and the body excretes glucose in the urine glycosuria.

Lost blood volume is replaced osmotically from water in body cells and other body compartments, causing dehydration and increased thirst polydipsia. Diabetes mellitus is diagnosed with a test for the glucose content in the blood, and is diagnosed by demonstrating any one of the following: [82]. A positive result, in the absence of unequivocal high blood sugar, should be confirmed by a repeat of any of the above methods on a different day.

It is preferable to measure a fasting glucose level because of the ease of measurement and the considerable time commitment of formal glucose tolerance testing, which takes two hours to complete and offers no prognostic advantage over the fasting test. Per the WHO, people with fasting glucose levels from 6. Of these two prediabetic states, the latter in particular is a major risk factor for progression to full-blown diabetes mellitus, as well as cardiovascular disease.

Glycated hemoglobin is better than fasting glucose for determining risks of cardiovascular disease and death from any cause. There is no known preventive measure for type 1 diabetes. The relationship between type 2 diabetes and the main modifiable risk factors excess weight, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and tobacco use is similar in all regions of the world. There is growing evidence that the underlying determinants of diabetes are a reflection of the major forces driving social, economic and cultural change: globalization , urbanization, population aging, and the general health policy environment.

Diabetes management concentrates on keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal, without causing low blood sugar. This can usually be accomplished with dietary changes, [] exercise, weight loss, and use of appropriate medications insulin, oral medications.

Learning about the disease and actively participating in the treatment is important, since complications are far less common and less severe in people who have well-managed blood sugar levels. These include smoking , high blood pressure , metabolic syndrome obesity , and lack of regular exercise.

The principles of managing diabetes may be similar across the general population with diabetes, however some considerations may need to be addressed when tailoring intervention, mainly in special populations. Considering those with severe mental illness , the efficacy of type 2 diabetes self-management interventions is still poorly explored, with insufficient scientific evidence to show whether these interventions have similar results to those observed in general population.

People with diabetes can benefit from education about the disease and treatment, dietary changes, and exercise, with the goal of keeping both short-term and long-term blood glucose levels within acceptable bounds. In addition, given the associated higher risks of cardiovascular disease, lifestyle modifications are recommended to control blood pressure.

Weight loss can prevent progression from prediabetes to diabetes type 2 , decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease, or result in a partial remission in people with diabetes. Most medications used to treat diabetes act by lowering blood sugar levels through different mechanisms. There is broad consensus that when people with diabetes maintain tight glucose control — keeping the glucose levels in their blood within normal ranges — they experience fewer complications, such as kidney problems or eye problems.

There are a number of different classes of anti-diabetic medications. Type 1 diabetes requires treatment with insulin , ideally using a “basal bolus” regimen that most closely matches normal insulin release: long-acting insulin for the basal rate and short-acting insulin with meals. Metformin is generally recommended as a first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes, as there is good evidence that it decreases mortality.

These include agents that increase insulin release sulfonylureas , agents that decrease absorption of sugar from the intestines acarbose , agents that inhibit the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 DPP-4 that inactivates incretins such as GLP-1 and GIP sitagliptin , agents that make the body more sensitive to insulin thiazolidinedione and agents that increase the excretion of glucose in the urine SGLT2 inhibitors.

A systematic review found potential harm to treating to targets lower than mmHg, [] and a subsequent systematic review in found no evidence of additional benefit from blood pressure lowering to between – mmHg, although there was an increased risk of adverse events. The use of aspirin to prevent cardiovascular disease in diabetes is controversial.

Weight loss surgery in those with obesity and type 2 diabetes is often an effective measure. A pancreas transplant is occasionally considered for people with type 1 diabetes who have severe complications of their disease, including end stage kidney disease requiring kidney transplantation. In countries using a general practitioner system, such as the United Kingdom, care may take place mainly outside hospitals, with hospital-based specialist care used only in case of complications, difficult blood sugar control, or research projects.

In other circumstances, general practitioners and specialists share care in a team approach. Home telehealth support can be an effective management technique. The use of technology to deliver educational programs for adults with type 2 diabetes includes computer-based self-management interventions to collect for tailored responses to facilitate self-management. In , million people had diabetes worldwide, [] up from an estimated million people in [] and from million in The WHO estimates that diabetes resulted in 1.

Diabetes occurs throughout the world but is more common especially type 2 in more developed countries. Diabetes was one of the first diseases described, [] with an Egyptian manuscript from c. Galen named the disease “diarrhea of the urine” diarrhea urinosa. The earliest surviving work with a detailed reference to diabetes is that of Aretaeus of Cappadocia 2nd or early 3rd century CE.

He described the symptoms and the course of the disease, which he attributed to the moisture and coldness, reflecting the beliefs of the ” Pneumatic School “. He hypothesized a correlation between diabetes and other diseases, and he discussed differential diagnosis from the snakebite, which also provokes excessive thirst.

His work remained unknown in the West until , when the first Latin edition was published in Venice. Two types of diabetes were identified as separate conditions for the first time by the Indian physicians Sushruta and Charaka in — CE with one type being associated with youth and another type with being overweight.

This sweet taste had been noticed in urine by the ancient Greeks, Chinese, Egyptians, Indians, and Persians [ citation needed ]. The ” St. Vincent Declaration ” [] [] was the result of international efforts to improve the care accorded to those with diabetes.

Doing so is important not only in terms of quality of life and life expectancy but also economically — expenses due to diabetes have been shown to be a major drain on health — and productivity-related resources for healthcare systems and governments. Several countries established more and less successful national diabetes programmes to improve treatment of the disease. People with diabetes who have neuropathic symptoms such as numbness or tingling in feet or hands are twice as likely to be unemployed as those without the symptoms.

In , diabetes-related emergency room ER visit rates in the United States were higher among people from the lowest income communities per 10, population than from the highest income communities per 10, population. Approximately 9. The term “type 1 diabetes” has replaced several former terms, including childhood-onset diabetes, juvenile diabetes, and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

Likewise, the term “type 2 diabetes” has replaced several former terms, including adult-onset diabetes, obesity-related diabetes, and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Beyond these two types, there is no agreed-upon standard nomenclature. Diabetes mellitus is also occasionally known as “sugar diabetes” to differentiate it from diabetes insipidus. In animals, diabetes is most commonly encountered in dogs and cats.

Middle-aged animals are most commonly affected. Female dogs are twice as likely to be affected as males, while according to some sources, male cats are more prone than females. In both species, all breeds may be affected, but some small dog breeds are particularly likely to develop diabetes, such as Miniature Poodles. Feline diabetes is strikingly similar to human type 2 diabetes. Overweight cats are also at higher risk.

The symptoms may relate to fluid loss and polyuria, but the course may also be insidious. In one review, researchers noted that Sativex may benefit those with MS-associated neuropathic pain and chronic severe neuropathic pain.

The review also found that Sativex may help relieve anxiety and stress, which are major drivers of chronic pain 8. Additionally, some research suggests that CBD may relieve symptoms of rheumatic diseases such as fibromyalgia.

A study that included survey data from 2, people with fibromyalgia found that those who used CBD for pain relief generally reported slight to significant improvement in symptoms 9. And according to preclinical evidence from rodent studies, CBD may have beneficial effects on pain and inflammation related to arthritis , but human studies are lacking Although researchers are cautiously optimistic that CBD may be helpful in the treatment of some types of pain, especially when combined with THC, more high quality studies are needed to determine its effectiveness in pain management.

CBD, especially in combination with THC, may be effective for reducing certain types of pain associated with conditions such as MS and fibromyalgia. Still, more research is needed to investigate its potential use in pain management.

Anxiety disorders and other mental health disorders can have devastating impacts on overall health and well-being. Mental health disorders are often treated with pharmaceutical drugs, which can cause a number of side effects, including drowsiness, agitation, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and headaches CBD oil has shown promise as a treatment for some mental health disorders, such as anxiety disorders, leading many people who live with these conditions to become interested in this natural approach.

In a Brazilian study, 57 men received either oral CBD or a placebo 90 minutes before they underwent a simulated public speaking test. The researchers found that a mg dose of CBD was the most effective at significantly reducing anxiety during the test CBD oil has been used to safely treat insomnia and anxiety in children with post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD , a type of anxiety disorder Several other studies have found that CBD may be effective for those with social anxiety and other anxiety-related disorders However, results from several studies suggest that it may help reduce depressive symptoms in those with cannabis use disorders In fact, a study evaluating the possible effectiveness of — mg of CBD per day for 12 weeks on anxiety and depression symptoms in people with bipolar disorder is expected to be completed in April CBD use has been shown to improve some symptoms related to anxiety disorders.

Researchers are currently investigating how CBD may be used in the treatment of other mental health disorders. CBD may help reduce some cancer-related symptoms and side effects related to cancer treatment, such as nausea, vomiting, and pain.

An older study looked at the effects of CBD and THC in people with cancer-related pain who did not experience relief from pain medication. Those treated with an extract containing both compounds experienced a significant reduction in pain compared with those who received only THC extract A review of five studies found some evidence that Sativex may help reduce cancer-related pain in some people However, findings from studies investigating the effects of cannabis and cannabinoids like CBD on cancer-related nausea, pain, and decreased appetite have been mixed Even though CBD may be helpful for some people with cancer, more research is needed to determine whether CBD should be used more regularly in cancer symptom management.

These products may not be safe, appropriate, or effective for all people with cancer. Though CBD may improve certain cancer-related symptoms in some people, research findings are currently mixed and more studies are needed to assess its effectiveness and safety. In fact, one of the most studied uses for CBD is in treating neurological disorders such as epilepsy and MS.

Though research in this area is still relatively new, several studies have shown promising results. Sativex has been shown to be a safe and effective way to reduce muscle spasticity in people with MS. In another study, researchers gave people with severe epilepsy 0. Their seizures reduced by a median of One more study found that CBD oil significantly reduced seizure activity in children with Dravet syndrome, a complex childhood epilepsy disorder, compared with a placebo However, some people in both of these studies experienced adverse reactions associated with CBD treatment, such as convulsions, fever, and fatigue.

CBD has also been researched for its potential effectiveness in treating several other neurological diseases.

Epidiolex, a prescription cannabidiol product, was approved for use by the FDA in for the treatment of seizures associated with two severe forms of epilepsy, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. In , Epidiolex received FDA approval for the treatment of seizures caused by tuberous sclerosis complex, a rare genetic disease that causes benign tumors to grow in the brain and other areas of the body CBD may be effective for treating seizures related to several health conditions.

The prescription CBD product Epidiolex has received FDA approval to treat seizures related to rare, seizure-causing conditions such as Dravet syndrome. Some research has linked CBD with several benefits for the heart and circulatory system, including the ability to lower high blood pressure.

High blood pressure is linked to higher risks of a number of health conditions, including stroke, heart attack, and metabolic syndrome In a small study, 9 healthy men were treated with mg of CBD oil.

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